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Date: Mon, 12 Nov 2001 13:35:19 -0800
From: Brooke Rowe <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Korea - 50 years ago this week, Nov. 8-14
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Korea - 50 years ago this week, Nov. 8-14
(EXCERPT) Offensive limited to small-unit actions, by Jim Caldwell
WASHINGTON (Army News Service, Nov. 6, 2001) - When Operation Sundial
was postponed in Korea 50 years ago this week, offensive action was
limited to small-unit attacks and patrolling the front lines.
Nov. 11, 1951 -- U.N. commander Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway cancels plans
that Eighth Army commander Gen. James Van Fleet had created for an
offensive move to a line named Duluth, south of Pyongyang. That
automatically kills Operation Sundial, which called for ROK I Corps to
advance to Wonsan on the east coast. After attaining their objectives,
IX Corps and the ROK I Corps were to link up and trap North Korea
units between them and Line Kansas.
At U.N. headquarters, plans for that offensive -- and for advancing to
the Yalu River -- are updated, but Ridgway doesn't think they'll ever
be used. The cost in lives is too great to simply revert to positions
somewhere along the Kansas line as part of the peace settlement.
Nov. 12 -- Ridgway tells Van Fleet to assume an "active defense." Van
Fleet will be allowed to take terrain that enhances the defense lines,
but can't commit more than a division to any single action. He can
also attack to retake ground lost to communist actions. At the same
time, he must take advantage of conditions that will inflict the most
casualties on the enemy.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff agree with Ridgway's approach. With such
limitations, action along the front settles down to patrolling and
After the Nov. 8 meeting of the subcommittees of the truce talks
teams, Ridgway talks again to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The
demarcation line the communists propose does not take into
consideration the Eighth Army gains since July. He thinks the
communists intend to remain along that line as much as possible. In
effect, it's a de facto cease-fire line, Ridgway argues.
If he has to give them Kaesong, Ridgway wants to stand fast on the
principle that the line of contact that exists when the armistice
becomes effective is the actual line of demarcation.
The JCS disagree and tell Ridgway that the U.N. negotiators can push
to delay selecting the line of demarcation, but the communists have
made great concessions even to move to the line they now identify. If
the U.N. vetoes the reds' proposed line, they may revert to their
original bargaining point, the 38th Parallel.
Nov. 14 -- In a subcommittee meeting, Gen. Lee Sang Cho, North Korea,
agrees that settling on the demarcation line now is a de facto
cease-fire. Gen. Henry Hodes criticizes the reasoning for that.
The talks turn bitter. Chinese Maj. Gen. Hsieh Fang twice challenges
the U.N. to agree to a cease-fire immediately and then settle the
issues of peace enforcement, prisoners and other items later.
Then Hsieh gets upset and calls Hodes "turtle egg," a great insult in
the Chinese language. When talking about Adm. Turner Joy, chief U.N.
negotiator, Hsieh refers to him as "the senior delegate of your
delegation, whose name I forgot."
The U.N. team ignores the insults, but the talks are deadlocked.
Nov. 12 -- Sen. William F. Knowland, (R-Calif.), demands the United
States take action against China for extorting money from
Chinese-Americans across the nation. At least 3,000 of the 40,000
Chinese-Americans in New York have received letters demanding money be
sent to Chinese communist organizations or their relatives in China
will be tortured, killed and ancestral graves will be demolished. If
they responded, they received more letters.
Many of the 40,000 other Chinese-Americans across the country have
also received extortion letters, according to a spokesman.
Those victimized in San Francisco have begun registering so the United
States can protest to the U.N.
Retired Army Capt. Eugene R. Guild, Glenwood Springs, Colo., retracts
a letter he wrote to President Truman charging "political tampering"
for the reason his deceased son, Marine Lt. John Guild, did not
receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. Guild's buddy, Marine Lt.
Henry Alfred Commiskey, uninjured, earned the medal in the same action
Guild was killed. Guild received the Navy Cross. The reason the
elderly Guild withdrew the letter is the White House made public that
Adm. C. Turner Joy's Far East headquarters made the recommendations.
Nov. 14 -- U.S. casualties for the week ending Nov. 9 total 99,226
with 16,805 dead.
Col. James M. Hanley, Eighth Army Judge Advocate General, charges the
communists with killing 5,500 American prisoners and 290 other
non-Korean prisoners. He provides summaries of reports of atrocities
that are not "complete but show a record of killing and barbarism
unique even in the communist world." Many military and government
officials in Tokyo and Washington immediately criticize Hanley for
releasing unverified charges, and for causing unnecessary grief for
families of Americans missing in Korea.
His report raises a furor in Congress. Sen. Edwin C. Johnson (D-Texas)
and Reps. W. Sterling Cole (R-N.Y.), John W. Byrnes (R-Wis.), and J.
Frank Wilson (D-Texas), call for dropping the A-bomb on communists in
A report from Formosa claims that communist China has about 1,000
Soviet-built planes of its own and more than 800 others are being
flown in China by Russian pilots.
(Editor's note: Jim Caldwell is a writer for the TRADOC News Service)
The American War Library