DEFENSE OF THE PUSAN PERIMETER
08-04 to 08-15-50
Compiled by Ed Evanhoe, November 2002
August 4, 1950
U.S. Army casualties from June 25 through July 31, 1950 totaled 6003: 1,884 KIA, 2,695 WIA, 523 MIA and 901 reported captured. Of these more than half of these were from the 24th Infantry Division -- 3,610.
By the morning of August 4, the U.S. 25th Infantry Division occupied positions from Korea's south coast at Chindong-ni, northwest to "The Notch" overlooking the Nam River at Chungam-ni and then northeast to where the Nam River flowed into the Naktong River. To the north of the 25th, the 24th Infantry Division augmented by 17th ROK Army Regiment, occupied positions on the east bank of the Naktong from the junction of Nam-Naktong Rivers to the Koryong-Taegu road while the 1st Cavalry Division defended the east bank of the Naktong River from the Koryong-Taegu road to just north of Waegwan some northwest of Taegu, a distance of approximately 80 miles. The newly arrived (July 31) 9th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, was in Army Reserve at Kyongsan, 10 miles southeast of Taegu. From Waegwan north the front became the responsibility of the ROK Army. It continued north to Naktong-ni where it turned east and continued in a rough arc to Yongdok on the east coast, also a distance of approximately 80 miles. ROKA units defending this line were, 1st ROK Infantry Division, 6th ROK Infantry Division, 8th ROK Infantry Division, Capital ROK Division and 3rd ROK Infantry Division. All bridges across the Naktong had been destroyed.
Breaking American forces down even more: The 25th Division had, south to north, 27th, 24th and 35th Infantry Regiments on the line with the newly arrived and attached 5th Infantry Regimental Combat Team -- consisting of the 555th (Triple Nickel) Field Artillery Battalion, and the 72nd Combat Engineer Company -- in division reserve. Also in reserve were the 89th Medium Tank (M4E8 tanks) Battalion and the just arrived (August 2) 1st Provisional Marine Brigade. Division headquarters was at Masan. The 24th Division, south to north, had the 34th and 21st Infantry Regiments plus the 17th ROK Army Regiment on the line and the 19th Infantry Regiment in division reserve. Division headquarters was at Miryang. Above this the 1st Cavalry Division, south to north, had the 7th Cavalry Regiment (less its 1st Battalion which was division reserve), the 8th Cavalry Regiment and the 5th Cavalry Regiment on the line.
For the most part it was a quiet day in the American sector.
August 5, 1950
The 23rd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, arrives at Pusan.
At 8th Army Headquarters, intelligence indicated a build-up of North Korean forces northwest of Taegu in the 1st Cavalry Division and 1st ROK Division areas and a lesser build-up in the area west of the 25th Division. 8th Army staff decided a spoiling attack by the 25th would blunt the build-up west of the 25th Division and also force the North Koreans to divert troops from the build-up in the area northwest of Taegu so alerted the 25th Division to prepare to attack.
In between these two build-ups a third, and unnoticed, build-up was taking place across the Naktong from 3rd Battalion, 34th Infantry, 24th Division, positions which were located in an terrain feature known as "The Naktong Bulge." This is where the Naktong River made a "U" shaped jog to the west from its general north-south path. This U-shaped bulge began approximately 7 miles north of where the Nam River entered the Naktong and is approximately 4 miles east to west and 5 miles north to south and is west of the town of Yongsan. This meant the 3rd Battalion had roughly a 15,000 yard front to defend (as compared to the 10,000 yard front which was considered normal at the time for a U.S. infantry division to defend.) Since it obviously impossible for a single battalion to defend the entire line, the battalion's three infantry companies set up in a rough triangle with "K" Company on high ground at the southern end of the bulge overlooking a ferry crossing, "I" Company at the northern end on high ground north of the Ohang ferry crossing and "L" Company at the far western end on high ground overlooking another ferry crossing. There were wide gaps in between the three companies.
August 6, 1950
At approximately 12 a.m. a North Korean battalion began crossing at the Ohang ferry crossing in the 3rd Battalion, 34th Infantry area. They crossed holding their clothes, equipment and weapons above their heads as they waded through neck-deep water. Lack of boats precluded them bringing mortars and heavy weapons. Once on the east bank of the Naktong, they dressed, formed up into columns and marched down an oxcart trail toward the Yongsan-Naktong River road at Soesil (three and half miles to the south of Ohang.) Approximately 800 North Korean troops crossed. The 1st Battalion was ordered out of reserve to Soesil but was stopped north of the town at a terrain feature known as "Cloverleaf Hill.". Meanwhile the 19th Infantry Regiment was ordered out of reserve and to the Naktong Bulge area. Fighting continued around Soesil and Cloverleaf Hill throughout the day. Meanwhile the 9th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, was attached to the 24th Infantry Division and began moving toward the Naktong Bulge. The 19th and 34th were ordered to counterattack in the morning.
Formal orders for the attack were given to the 25th Infantry Division for the attack toward Chinju to begin the following morning, August 7. Planning called for the 5th RCT (regimental combat team) to attack west along the Masan-Chinju road. Once it was past the junction where a road led southward to Kosong, the 5th Regiment would continue attacking west on the Chinju road while the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade would attack south down the Kosong road. At the same time the 35th Regiment would attack from its positions at "The Notch" southwest toward Much'on-ni and link up the 5th RCT there. The 24th Regiment was given the task of cleaning up enemy pockets in the Sobuk Mountain region about half way between Masan and Chinju. That evening the 5th RCT took over 27th Regiment positions at Chindong-ni and prepared to attack. The 27th Regiment into Army reserve at Masan.
August 7, 1950
Overnight the enemy succeeded in bringing more troops across the Naktong, reinforcing troops already in the Naktong Bulge. During the morning the North Koreans managed to occupy most of Cloverleaf Hill and Obong-ni Ridge to the south of Soesil. A counterattack by the 19th about midmorning on Cloverleaf Hill and Obong-ni failed.
To the south the 35th Regiments attack got off to a good start but about 3 miles from The Notch ran into a North Korean battalion supported by tanks which was apparently moving into position to mount an attack. After a 5-hour battle the North Korean battalion was routed and the 35th Regiment's attack continued so by dusk were on the high ground above the Much'on-ni road fork. In the 24th Regiment sector, things did not go well and by evening, the enemy still held its positions in the Sobuk Mountain area. In the 5th RCT area, things did not go well either. After reaching the road junction, instead of continuing west on the Chinju road, somehow the lead battalion turned south down the road allotted to the 1st Marine Brigade and by noon was on a hill mass 3 miles south of the road fork. As a result, the hill northwest of the junction, where the 5th RCT battalion was supposed to be, remained unoccupied. The North Koreans took advantage of this mistake and attacked, cutting off "F" Company, 5th RCT on "Fox Hill." Meanwhile below this position, a general melee developed between the 5th Marine Regiment, elements of the 5th RCT and even a few units from the 27th Infantry, and attacking North Koreans. The enemy attack was beaten off by mid-afternoon and the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment attacked up "Fox Hill" to relieve "F" Company, 5th RCT. The attack failed. Meanwhile another North Korean force had circled around Chindong-ni and occupied a hill just east of there. This enemy position blocked the Main Supply Route (MSR) from Masan. Late that afternoon troops from 2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment and 3rd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment attack the roadblock but the attack failed.
August 8, 1950
At dawn the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines attacked enemy forces on Fox Hill. This time the attack succeeded and broke through to the trapped 1st Battalion, 5th RCT. Meanwhile the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines and elements of the 24th Regiment tried without success to reduce the roadblock east of Chindong-ni.
In the Naktong Bulge the 9th Infantry arrived and relieved 34th Infantry troops fighting on Cloverleaf Hill and Obong-ni Ridge. That afternoon the 9th Infantry attacked due west regaining Cloverleaf Hill and Obong-ni Ridge but were driven off later that evening by North Korean counterattacks.
During that evening the 15th North Korean Division waded the Naktong at several spots about six miles to the north of the 5th Cavalry Regiment positions at Waegwan and moved to the Yuhak Mountain area. Yuhak Mountain is a 2800-foot high peak some 3 miles northwest of the town of Tabu-dong which is some 15 miles north-northwest of Taegu.
August 9, 1950
At approximately 3 a.m. the 3rd North Korean Division began crossing the Naktong in the 5th Cavalry Regiment sector around midnight at Noch'on, a town 2 miles south of the Naktong Bridge at Waegwan. The crossing was discovered and the 5th Cavalry opened up with automatic weapons and pre-registered artillery concentrations. Despite heavy casualties, the North Korean the lead regiment kept crossing and survivors took moved to the Hill 268 area (Triangulation Hill) on the east bank of the Naktong. The two following regiments were cut to pieces as they tried to cross so abandoned the attempt and withdrew to the west bank of the Naktong. Around 9:30 a.m. the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, arrived from division reserve and mounted an unsuccessful attack on Hill 268.
In the Naktong Bulge the 9th Infantry Regiment attacked and regained their position on Cloverleaf and Obong-ni Ridge.
In the south, shortly after noon, the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, along with elements of the 24th Regiment, overrun the North Korean roadblock east of Chindong-ni. A few hours later the 5th RCT mounted a successful attack up the Chinju road. At the same time the 5th Marines broke through enemy defenders south of Chindong-ni and advanced cautiously down the coast road toward Much'on-ni and the planned link up with the 35th Regiment..
August 10, 1950
At Hill 268, 1st Cavalry artillery pounded the North Koreans while a tank column circled the hill and took enemy forces on the reverse under direct fire. At the same time, F-51s bombed and strafed the enemy regiment. The 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, attacked as the combined fire moved up Hill 268, routing the few survivors. By dusk Hill 258 was clear of enemy.
In the Naktong Bulge North Koreans attacked Cloverleaf Hill and Obong-ni Ridge at dawn and succeeded in driving the 9th Infantry from both positions, then continued the attack eastward but their attack failed to gain more ground. Meanwhile, to the north of Cloverleaf Hill, the 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry succeeded in capturing several key hills, the most important being Ohang Hill. An attack by all units was ordered for the following morning.
Far to the south and during the early morning the 2nd Battalion, 5th RCT, took and held the southern ridge of a low pass at Pongam-ni while "B" & "C" Companies, 1st Battalion, held the eastern face of the ridge on the north side of the pass. North Koreans held the rest of the northern ridge. Sporadic fighting took place throughout the day on the northern ridge. That night North Korean forces attacked the 1st Battalion and at the same time, sent an enveloping force to attack the artillery positions east of the town. Both attacks were beaten off.
August 11, 1950
In the Naktong Bulge the North Koreans had constructed several underwater bridges and used these to bring artillery, Su-76 self-propelled artillery and several tanks into the Bulge area as well as most of 4th North Korean Infantry Division troops so when the U.S. 19th, 34th and 9th Infantry regiments attacked, they ran into strong enemy positions with interlocking fire and artillery support. All American attacks failed. Meanwhile North Korean troops were circling south of the main fighting and cut the main Yongsan-Masan road at the Naktong River. Snipers began firing at traffic on the Yongsan-Naktong River road. To halt this enemy encirclement the 27th Infantry Regiment was pulled out of reserve at Masan and sent to retake the bride over the Naktong and reduce the roadblock there.. A few miles north of Masan while the 27th Infantry advanced toward the Naktong River and the roadblock at the bridge at Namji-ri on a road packed with refugee traffic. At one point the point company was pushing through a crowd of refugees when an oxcart turned over exposing 15 rifles and bags of ammunition. 12 North Korean soldiers, dressed as refugees ran from the scene, 8 of whom were killed by American riflemen. A short time later the 27th engaged approximately 200 North Korean soldiers near Iryong-ni, located a few miles south of the bride over the Naktong at Namji-ni.. After a short a fight surviving enemy fled north. That night the 27th retook the bridge and established a bridgehead on the north side.
In the 25th Division sector, just before noon, the 3rd (leading) Battalion, 5th Marines, neared the town of Kosong when their artillery support flushed out a camouflaged motorized North Korean unit. The North Koreans tried to escape west down the road but were caught by Marine Corsairs and UN F-51s. These aircraft destroyed 31 trucks, 24 jeeps and 45 motorcycles plus large amounts of ammunition and supplies. By evening the 5th Marines were in position 4 miles west of Kosong.
Meanwhile at Pongam-ni, in early afternoon the 2nd Battalion, 5th RCT, attacked the North Koreans defending the west side and north end of the northern ridge. The attack succeeded in driving enemy forces from that area. That evening the 2nd Battalion and one battery of artillery were through the pass and effectively out of radio communication with the 5th RCT Headquarters. At around 9 p.m. the remainder of the 555th Artillery and other 5th RCT troops were formed up on the road ready to move over the pass when orders arrived from division to hold the movement until dawn the next morning.
August 12, 1950
In the 7th Cavalry sector during the early morning hours a North Korean regiment waded the Naktong in the Hyongp'ung and set up positions on Hill 265, the northern knob of Hill 409 located 2 miles southwest of Hyongp'ung. Meanwhile a second regiment began crossing the Naktong via a partially blown bridge, advancing through Yongpo, then to Wich'on-dong where it engaged the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry. This was the same unit which had abandoned its weapons in the No Gun Ri (Nog'un-ri) area east of Yongdong and run. This time the unit fought well, stopping the enemy cold and by 9 a.m. had driven the enemy from hill 265 and the Wich'on-dong area. The North Koreans retreated in disorder back over the Naktong with heavy loses.
In the Naktong Bulge area the North Koreans had infiltrated a large force around Yongsan during the night and set up a strong road block about 3 miles east of the city on the Yongsan-Miryang road. A scratch force from 24th Division Headquarters at Miryang, consisting of clerks, military police and 24th Reconnaissance company men, was formed and sent to stop the North Koreans from advancing farther east. After heaving fighting the enemy advance was stopped by the scratch group and the North Koreans withdrew back to their roadblock positions. Meanwhile to the south on the Yongsan-Masan road the 27th Infantry continued its advance toward Yongsan, encountering entrenched enemy with mortars. With the help of an air strike the enemy was routed and the 27th continued north. As this was going on the 1st Battalion, 23rd Infantry Regiment arrived at Miryang and was ordered to attack west on the Miryang-Yongsan road.
In the 25th Division sector, shortly after 1 a.m. "C" Company, 1st Battalion, 5th RCT came under attack by strong enemy forces and were driven from their positions around 4 a.m. At this point the 5th RCT commander decided to ignore orders not move out of the gulch and over the pass until dawn so issued the order to move immediately. In the dark vehicles slipped off the narrow road and had to be pulled out before the column could continue. Thus, when dawn broke, much of the column was still in the gulch. At this point enemy fire began on vehicles in the gulch. These included most of the 555th Artillery vehicles and guns. Soon afterward, enemy tanks and self-propelled artillery appeared on a dirt trail north of the gulch and opened fire on the stalled American vehicles while North Korean infantry attacked from three sides. In short order the 555th and 90th Field Artillery Battalions had been overrun and their vehicles and guns destroyed. Survivors fled west over the pass to the west while the North Koreans, satisfied with their success, withdrew to the north and into the Sokum Mountain area. Meanwhile the 3rd Battalion, 5th RCT continued to advance westward toward Much'on-ni and linked up with the 35th Regiment who already occupied the town. Together these two units proceeded west to Chinju Pass and took up positions there.
In the 5th Marine sector the Marines advanced 11 miles toward Sach'on, a town 8 miles south of Chinju, during the morning but ran into a North Korean ambush and a heavy fight ensued. That afternoon a Marine battalion was withdrawn and sent to the 5th RCT sector to reduce a North Korean roadblock which had been placed in back the 5th RCT.
August 13, 1950
South of Yongsan the 27th Infantry continued toward the city while to the east the 1st Battalion, 23rd advanced from Miryang. By mid-afternoon both columns had reached their objectives, the high ground north and east of Yongsan. By evening the two North Korean battalions which had manned the roadblock east of Yongsan had been defeated and survivors fled to the west across the hills and mountains.
In the 25th Division area the 5th Marines received orders to abandon the attack and pull back to positions around Chindong-ni. At the same time, 25th Division regiments receives orders to pull back to their previous positions.
Meanwhile a new trouble spot developed in the southern end of the 1st Cavalry Division area when an enemy regiment crossed the Naktong and established itself on Hill 409 near Hyongp'ung. Elements of the 21st Infantry were sent to contain this threat.
August 14, 1950
Shortly after midnight in the 7th Cavalry area, the 10th North Korean Division began crossing in the vicinity of the partially blown bridge at Yongp'o and by 6 a.m. most of two regiments were on the east bank of the Naktong and advancing toward Wich'on-dong. The attack was stopped at Samuni-dong, about a mile and half east of the partially blown bridge by air attacks, artillery and combined weapons fire from the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry. By noon the North Korean broke and began retreating toward the west bank of the Naktong. Air and artillery decimated the fleeing enemy.
In the Naktong Bulge, "B" Company, 34th Infantry attacked the Obong-ni Ridge at dawn and succeeded in making it to the top of the ridge but were driven off by a fierce counterattack shortly afterward. To the north of "B" Company, two battalions of the 9th Infantry attacked Cloverleaf Hill gaining some ground but could not take control of the hill. Farther north the 19th Infantry attack failed. Fighting in all areas continued throughout the day and into the night.
More trouble developed in the 1st Cavalry Division area when, shortly after dark, another enemy infantry regiment and tanks crossed the Naktong north of Waegwan in the 1st ROK Division area, then turned south toward "G" Company, 5th Cavalry Regiment positions at the far northern end of the 1st Cavalry Division front on a terrain feature known as Hill 303. The southern slope of Hill 303 begins on the northern outskirts of Waegwan and rises to a 1000-foot high crest about a mile northwest of the town, thus giving a good view of Waegwan, the road net running out of the town, plus the railroad and highway bridges across the Naktong at this point. A main road follows the east bank of the Naktong.
August 15, 1950
As dawn broke at Waegwan, riflemen from "G" Company and the supporting mortarmen from "H" Company, 5th Cavalry, could see T-34 tanks and infantry on the Naktong River road west of their positions and more North Korean infantry circling around the eastern base of Hill 303. By 8 a.m. the hill was completely surrounded and the North Koreans begin advancing up the hill, overrunning the "H" Company mortar platoon and capturing most of its men. "G" pulls back into a tight defensive position near the crest and holds. Later that day a relief column comprised of "B" Company, 5th Cavalry and a platoon of tanks try to reach "G" Company but are driven back.
In the Naktong Bulge, fighting continued in a series of attacks and counterattacks. By the end of the day neither side had gained or lost ground. Casualties were heavy. It was obvious that both sides were exhausted from the continued see-saw battle so at this point 8th Army ordered the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade north to the Naktong Bulge with orders to attack on August 17. Meanwhile the 1st Battalion, 23rd Infantry was ordered to the Hill 409 area near Hyongp'ung to help the 21st Infantry contain the enemy regiment there.
August 16, 1950
At Hill 303 north of Waegwan, "B" Company and tanks again try to reach "G" Company but are driven back a second time. That night "G" Company manages to fight its way off Hill 303 and into friendly lines.
The 5th Marines arrived at Miryang where they received an order to attack the following day and moved immediately toward jump-off positions along the southern half of the Naktong Bulge. At the same time the 34th Infantry was ordered to attack through the center and the 19th Infantry to attack down the northern part of the Bulge.
The 27th Infantry Regiment arrives at Kyongsan where it becomes 8th Army reserve. Meanwhile, 20 miles to the northeast Waegwan and 15 miles north of Taegu a serious situation is developing as North Korean forces break through ROK forces and begin an advance south down the Sangju- Tabu-dong - Taegu road
August 17, 1950
As soon as it is learned "G" Company has escaped from Hill 303, an massive artillery barrage and series of air attacks are ordered on the hill. This begins at 2 p.m. and is followed up by an attack by "E" & "F" Companies. The hill was in friendly hands by 4:30 p.m. As they advanced up the hill, scouts found a man from "H" Company's mortar platoon who told them the North Koreans had executed all their American prisoners. A short time later the I&R Platoon, 5th Cavalry found the bodies of 26 "H" Company mortarmen, all with their hands tied behind their backs and shot down by burpgun fire. 5 other mortarmen survived the massacre by playing dead after bodies of their friends fell on top of them. That night additional atrocities occurred when 2 tanks from the 7th Tank Battalion were knocked out by North Korean antitank fire and 6 crewmen captured, then executed, also with their hands tied behind their backs, by North Koreans.
Late in the morning the 27th Infantry Regiment received orders to move its headquarters and a reinforced infantry battalion to just north of the Kumho River (3 miles north of Taegu) and get there as soon as possible. At noon the 1st Battalion along with a heavy mortar platoon and the 8th Field Artillery Battalion started for the Kumho River position arriving mid-afternoon, then moved forward another 2 miles to Ch'ilgok. By evening the entire 27th Infantry Regiment plus "C" Company, 73rd Medium Tank Battalion were north of Taegu on the Tabu-dong - Sangju road. Meanwhile the 37th Field Artillery Battalion was ordered from the P'ohang-dong area to Ch'ilgok for attachment to the 27th Infantry.
In the Naktong Bulge area the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines moved out at 8 a.m. to attack Obong-ni Ridge. Heavy fighting ensued with the Marines gaining the crest twice but with too few men to hold on so were thrown back each time. After suffering 60% casualties in these attacks, the 2nd Battalion was relieved by the 1st Battalion who took up the attack. At 4 p.m. all American artillery fired a series of "Time on Target" (TOT) barrages on the Cloverleaf and Obong-ni Ridge. These barrages, half impact fused and half air burst, worked with the forward slopes and down the reverse slope. As soon as the TOT finished the 9th Infantry and 5th Marines attacked. The air and ground bursts had done the job so this time the 9th Infantry retook the Cloverleaf and its reverse slopes so was able to use this high ground to support the 5th Marine attack on Obong-ni Ridge. The Marines captured the northern knob of the ridge at about 5 p.m. Using this as a firebase, the Marines took the next two knobs to the south but were unable to take the third (Hill 145.) Just before dark the North Koreans committed four T-34 tanks to try and break the Marine's hold on the Pass between the Ridge and the Cloverleaf. Marine M-26s and 3.5" Bazooka teams destroyed three of the tanks while supporting F-51s destroyed the forth and scattered supporting North Korean Infantry. While this was going on, the 19th and 34th Infantry Regiments made slow but steady progress in the center and northern sectors of the Bulge.
In the 25th Division area west of Masan North Koreans began a series of small probing attacks along the 24th and 35th Infantry fronts. The most serious was a battalion sized attack on the 1st Battalion, 35th, located on Sibidang Ridge in the Komam-ni area. The initial attack overran "A" Company and a mortar platoon but a counterattack later in the day retook these positions.
August 18, 1950
In the 5th Naktong Bulge sector North Korean forces counterattacked Marine positions on Obong-ni Ridge at about 3:45 a.m. This attack made small gains but was driven off after about 45 minutes of fighting. The enemy lost 183 killed along the Marine perimeter. At dawn the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, continued the attack down the Obong Ridge and by evening the entire ridge was secure. At the same time attacked the next ridge west of Obong Ridge. 9th Infantry mortars supported this attack, which was successful. Soon afterwards aerial observers reported North Korean groups attempting to withdraw westward toward the Naktong. Air strikes and artillery air bursts caught many groups in the open inflicting heavy casualties. To the north of the Marines and 9th Infantry, the 19th and 34th Infantry Regiments made steady progress against light to moderate opposition. By evening it was clear the North Korean 4th Infantry Division had been defeated and survivors were trying to escape across the Naktong. The battle of the Naktong Bulge was over.
In the 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry, 25th Division area, the enemy again mounted a battalion-sized attack. A see-saw battle developed as positions were lost and the retaken by counterattack.
Meanwhile far to the north in compliance with orders the 27th Infantry mounts a 2-battalion attack up the Tabu-dong - Sangju road. Meanwhile two regiments from the 1st ROK Infantry Division attack north up the ridges on both sides of the 27th Infantry. The 27th reached a point 2 miles north of Tabu-dong when word reached them the ROK regiments on the ridges above them were stalled so the regiment's advance was halted and the regiment set up a 4-company front just north of the small village of Soi-ri. The road at this point was nearly straight on a north-south axis for about 3 miles and ground in the valley almost flat, falling gently from north to south. A mile north of 27th positions the road forked at the very small village of Ch'onp'yong-dong. The left hand fork (looking north) was the main Sangju road, the right hand fork was the road to Kunwi. Rising from the valley on the west was 2,700-foot high Yuhak Mountain. A 2,400-foot high mountain also rose on the east side of the valley. Shortly afer dark the North Koreans launched the first of seven successive attacks. Led by two T-34 tanks and a Su-76 self-propelled gun, a column of walking and truck-mounted infantry moved south down the road. Both tanks, the Su-76 and 2 trucks were destroyed and the surviving infantry retreated north. 3 more T-34 tanks appeared but withdrew.
August 19, 1950
At what was now being called "The Bowling Alley" by the troops, the North Koreans launched a second attack against 27th Infantry positions at approximate 2 a.m. Later that morning, 2 ROK regiments launched attacks on the ridges above the 27th with some gains. While this was going on, the 23rd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Division, moved into positions behind the 27th establishing defensive positions around the American artillery battalions and a short distance behind the 27th.
The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade is released from 24th Division control and sent into 8th Army Reserve at Masan, where it remained until 1 Sept.
In the 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry regiment area the enemy again attacked and another see-saw battle developed with positions being lost and regained. At the end of the day all American units were back in their original positions.
The 38th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division arrives at Pusan and is ordered to Miryang.
August 20, 1950
In the Bowling Alley, the day was quiet but as soon as dark fell, the North Koreans launched a fresh attack down the valley in bright moonlight. After an initial barrage of 120mm mortar fire, several T-34 tanks led the attack. The 27th held fire until the enemy was about 200 yards away, then opened up with combined small arms, machine-gun, mortar, tank and artillery fire. 5 T-34 tanks were destroyed and enemy retreated with heavy loses.
In the 35th Infantry, 25th Division area, a large concentration of North Koreans are spotted and brought under air-burst artillery and air attack. The enemy withdraws back into the mountains with heavy loses. Meanwhile "A" Company, 29th Infantry and "C" Company, 35th Infantry, move into blocking position behind the 35th Infantry's 1st Battalion. Probing attacks continue throughout the night. In the Sobuk Mountain area on a terrain feature known as "Battle Mountain", units of the 24th Infantry abandon their positions forcing remaining 24th Infantry to also withdraw.
The 2nd Infantry Division is ordered to relieve the 24th Infantry Division in the Naktong Bulge area.
August 21, 1950
Shortly after daybreak a patrol from the 27th Infantry advanced about a mile up the Bowling Alley, destroying 5 disabled T-34 tanks with thermite grenades on the way. Besides these the patrol found numerous enemy dead, 2 destroyed Su-76 SP guns plus mortars and other weapons/equipment. The patrol withdrew back to 27th positions without casualties.
On Sibidang Ridge in the 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry area the enemy continues small probing attacks with no gains. Meanwhile the 1st Battalion, 5th RCT is ordered to take Sobuk Mountain. It does so after a massive air attack and preparatory artillery barrage but are driven off after dark by a North Korean counterattack. The 1st Battalion, 5th RCT, is ordered to counterattack the following day at noon.
August 22, 1950
Just after midnight the North Koreans launched a major attack down the Bowling Alley while other North Korean units attacked 1st ROK division regiments holding the high ridges on both sides of 27th Infantry positions. The attack down the Bowling Alley was led by 9 T-34 tanks and several Su-76 SP guns. Americans withheld fire until the T-34s ran into an antitank mine field about 150 yards in from the forward 27th positions. At this point 90mm from supporting M-26 tanks took out the lead T-34 and another T-34 far down the enemy column, trapping the T-34s and Su-76 SP guns in between. Meanwhile air-burst artillery fire and small arms fire decimated enemy infantry. The battle last until dawn with the North Koreans losing 7 of the 9 T-34s, 3 Su-76 SP guns plus several trucks and personnel carriers. As this battle was going on, a North Korean regiment infiltrated around 27th Infantry and ROK 1st Division troops on the high ridges and appeared on ridge above road behind the 27th and ahead of the 23rd Infantry guarding the artillery. The ridge is only 9 miles from Taegu.
In the 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry area on Sibidang Ridge the North Koreans mount an infiltration attack after dark by slipping up the 1st Battalion positions, cutting the wire and moving into close combat range before being spotted. A grenade, small arms battle ensues but the enemy attack fails. At this point the North Koreans withdraw back to their mountain stronghold on Sobuk Mountain. To the south, the 1st Battalion, 5th RCT, attacks and takes Sobuk Mountain for the second time but is partially driven off after dark by repeated enemy counterattacks.
August 23, 1950
During the early morning hours, North Koreans attacked again down the Bowling Alley, only to be repulsed again with the loss of 2 T-34s and heavy infantry casualties. Meanwhile the enemy regiment on the ridge to the rear of the 27th attacked 23rd positions. This attack was driven off and when dawn broke the 23rd counterattacked the ridge and drove the enemy from the ridge above the artillery positions, then continued sweeping the ridge. By nightfall only a few pockets of enemy remained.
On Sobuk Mountain in the 5th RCT area, "A" Company, 1st Battalion tries to take the high ground 1000 yards southwest of Sobuk Mountain but is unable to do so. To the north in the "Battle Mountain" area, the 24th Infantry did manage to obtain a toehold on the crest of a terrain feature known as "Old Baldy."
2nd Division units finish taking over 24th Infantry Division units in the Naktong Bulge area.
August 24, 1950
The final attack in the Bowling Alley against 27th Infantry positions took place shortly after midnight and was again repulsed with heavy enemy loses. Later in the day the 27th Infantry was relieved by 1st ROK Division forces and ordered back to 25th Division control at Masan. Meanwhile the 23rd Infantry finished cleaning out enemy pockets on the ridge. The battle of the Bowling Alley was over.
August 25, 1950
"E" Company, 2nd Battalion, 24th Infantry, stop several counterattacks against their positions on of Battle Mountain while "C" Company did the same at their positions on "Old Baldy.".
August 26, 1950
Once in reserve, the badly under strength 34th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division, is disbanded and its men and equipment used to form the 3rd Battalion, 19th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division. Of the 2000+ men who arrived in Korea with the 34th Infantry on July 3, only 184 were left. The rest were KIA, WIA or MIA. Simultaneously, the 5th RCT is transferred to the 24th Division as its third regiment.
The North Koreans continued their attacks against "E" Company, 24th Infantry, on Battle Mountain and against "C" company positions on "Old Baldy" but failed to dislodge the defenders.
In Japan, USN Lieutenant Eugene Clark, is ordered to the islands at the mouth of Flying Fish Channel, the sea approach to Inch'on, where he is to form a unit from local Koreans and use this unit to clear the lightly held island on both sides of the channel by September 14. He also is to establish an intelligence net in the Inch'on area.
August 27, 1950
The North Koreans launch several small attacks against 24th Infantry positions on "Old Baldy" and Battle Mountain but fail to make gains. Fighting along all fronts in U.S. sectors taper off to patrol action as both sides regroup.
However, in the ROK Army area on the east coast, the North Korean 5th & 12th Divisions launches an all-out attack in the Kigye-P'ohang-dong area, driving the ROK Capital and 3rd Division back to line below P'ohang-dong and An'gong on the Hyongsan River. This threatens the air field at Yonil below P'ohang-dong. The U.S. 21st Infantry Regiment was moving into positions north of Taegu at this time but was ordered to move to Kyongju, a town on the Pusan-P'ohang highway and railroad, ASAP. On arriving in the early afternoon the 1st Battalion, 21st moved into behind the Capital ROK Division at An'gong. The remainder of the regiment takes up positions a short distance behind the 1st Battalion and prepares to attack the following morning. During the night elements from the 5th North Korean Division penetrate 3rd ROK Division lines west of P'ohang-dong.
August 28, 1950
8th Army G-2 warns units that the North Koreans are preparing for a general attack in the 2nd and 25th Infantry Division areas and could be launched at any time.
ROK troops regain the ground lost during the night but again lose it after dark to an enemy counterattack.
The 23rd Infantry, 2nd Infantry Division, is relieved from the Taegu Front and sent south to rejoin the 2nd Division at Miryang. Meanwhile, the 1st Cavalry Division area is ordered to shift to the east so the Taegu-Sangju road is part of their area and the 2nd Division area is expanded north. The 7th & 8th Cavalry Regiments are ordered to the mountains north and west of Taegu while the 23rd Infantry, 2nd Division or ordered to fill former 7th Cavalry Regiment positions on the Naktong.
August 29, 1950
At dawn, "B" Company, 21st Infantry supported by a platoon of tanks from the 73rd Tank Battalion, counterattacks at P'ohang-dong and moves to a mile and half north of the town. ROK Army troops take over the recaptured area and the small American task force moves back to P'ohang-dong. Later in the day, supported by American tanks and air attacks, the ROK Capital Division regains the town of Kigye but loses it after dark to a strong enemy counterattack.
The British 27th Infantry Brigade consisting of Brigade Headquarters, the 1st Battalion Middlesex Regiment and the 1st Battalion of the Argylls and Sutherland Highlanders Regiment, landed at Pusan and is immediately moved north to Kyongsan, 10 miles southeast of Taegu.
August 30, 1950
The 27th Infantry Regiment is ordered to rejoin the 25th Division at Masan. A see-saw battle in the P'ohang-dong -- Kigye area continues.
August 31, 1950
Shortly before midnight North Korea launches its expected, well-planned and well coordinated offensive in the 2nd and 25th Division sectors as North Korean troops cross the lower Naktong from Hyongp'ung southward to the coast. At this point in time the 35th Infantry Regiment held the northern part of the line from the Namji Bridge southward to the Chinju-Masan highway, a front of 26,000 yards. The weakest part of the 35th Infantry line was at the far north end where there was a 3-mile gap along the Naktong between "F" Company's main positions and its platoon guarding the bridge over the Naktong at Namji-ri. South of the Chinju-Masan highway, the 24th Infantry Regiment held the high ground, including Battle Mountain, P'il-bong (P'il Mountain) while the 5th Infantry held the southern spur of Sobuk Mountain to the road at Chindong-ni. ROK Marine units held the line from Chindong-ni to the coast. The 35th Infantry's command post was on the east side of the Chirwon--Chung-ni road about half way between the two towns, the 24th Infantry command post was at Haman and the 5th Infantry's command post at Chindong-ni.
Far to the northwest USN Lt. Eugene Clark arrives at Tokchok-kundo, the group of islands at the mouth of Flying Fish Channel and the channel that leads to Inch'on, where he meets with local National Police officials and plans the first attack to clear the islands along the channel. After meeting with local National Police officials, who indicate they are willing to help if supplied with weapons and ammunition, the first island-clearing operation is planned for the following day.
Battle casualties for all American divisions have been heavy for the month of August. The 24th Division had 1,941 casualties, the 25th Division, 1,800; the 1st Cavalry Division, 1,503; and the 9th Infantry, 2nd Division, 827. However, by the end of August, UN forces now held a substantial numerical superiority, and a much, much greater superiority in artillery, tanks, over the North Koreans. North Korean divisions by this time were down to 40-50% of their original strength in men, and down 70-80% of their original strength in armor and artillery. To make matters worse for the North Koreans, their divisions were now filled with very reluctant, green recruits conscripted from North Korean held portions of South Korea.
In the east ROK forces in the P'ohang-dong - Kigye area continue their see-saw battle with the North Korean 5th and 13th Divisions. The North Koreans make small gains in both areas.
September 1, 1950
The attack in the 25th Division sector got underway around 12 a.m. with the main thrust against the 2nd Battalion, 24th Infantry Regiment and quickly overran their positions on the Chungam-ni--Haman road and the high ground on both sides. By 4 a.m. enemy troops were entering Haman itself, forcing the 24th Infantry command post to relocate 2 miles to the northeast of Haman. The 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry was ordered to counterattack to restore the line but by then most of the unit had fled to high ground 2 miles east of Haman. The 1st Battalion did mount a small counterattack with approximately 60 men but the attack was quickly defeated and the remaining men and officers from the 1st Battalion fled to the east. By 8 a.m. the better part of 2 North Korean regiments were pouring through the 3-mile wide gap at Haman.
To the north in the 35th Infantry sector, North Korean artillery and mortars brought all 35th Infantry positions under fire. As this barrage was falling, North Korean tanks and infantry began crossing the Naktong using underwater bridges they had constructed and quickly drove to encircle and attack 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry positions on Sibidang Mountain. This attack was stopped and by dawn the enemy had withdrawn out of range. Even thought the 35th Infantry had held, it was in peril since approximately 3000 North Koreans were behind its lines.
Across the Naktong to the north in the Naktong Bulge area heavy fighting was taking place in the 9th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Division area. During the night North Korean attacks overran most 9th Infantry units in the Naktong Bulge area and forcing the regiment to take up a new line in the low hills just to the west of Yongsan. Meanwhile another enemy attack overran 23rd Infantry positions just to the north of the 9th Infantry- 23rd Infantry dividing line and by mid-morning North Korean troops had advanced to the Yongsan--Miryang road, thus splitting the division with the 9th Infantry and division headquarters to the south of the North Korean roadblock and the 23rd and 38th Infantry Regiments, plus most of the artillery to the north. A decision was made to commit the 5th Marines back to Naktong Bulge area. Meanwhile scattered fighting was taking place throughout the Naktong Bulge area as enemy troops tried to take positions bypassed earlier and which were still holding out.
To the east in the Yongsan area, a scratch force made up the 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion, the 2nd Division Reconnaissance Company and the 72nd Medium Tank Battalion defended the town against advancing North Koreans. A series of sharp fights took place beginning just after dark. The defending Americans were pulled back as a unit to the hills north, east and west of the town.
Meanwhile, to south in the 35th Infantry, 25th Division area, the regiment still held its positions Overlooking where the Nam River joined the Naktong but already had significant North Korean forces on the Chirwon to their rear. This is the road which crossed the Naktong at Namji-ri. However, instead of withdrawing, the 35th took up defensive positions across North Korean supply routes, in effect forcing enemy troops to their west to live and fight with what they had carried with them or what they could capture from the Americans.
In the Flying Fish Channel approach island area, Lt. Clark, a small group of Royal Marines and National Police land on Yonghung-do, driving the small North Korean force from the island. Yonghung-do was the farthest west island held by the North Koreans.
In the P'ohang-dong - Kigye area fighting continues with ROK forces slowly losing ground.
In the 1st Cavalry sector the division is ordered to mount spoiling attacks northwest of Taegu and decides the 7th Cavalry Regiment will attack Suam Mountain (Hill 518) located 5 miles northeast of Waegwan and 2 miles east of the Naktong River and west of 7th Cavalry lines. Once Hill 518 was secured by the 7th Cavalry, it was to continue on and take Hill 314. There was an unknown problem: A major North Korean offensive is about to begin. 3 North Korean Divisions are preparing to launch a major attack against 7th and 8th Cavalry positions the following day. At the same time, other North Korean divisions were preparing to attack in the 25th Infantry Division in the Masan area & 2nd Infantry Division in the Miryang/Naktong Bulge area as well mount an all-out attack against ROK divisions on the northern front.
September 2, 1950
In the Naktong Bulge area units of the 9th Infantry, cut off during the enemy advance, continued to fight. The most notable was the stand by survivors from "B" Company plus those from heavy weapons companies "D" and "H" on Hill 209, the hill overlooking the where the Yongsan--Naktong River road ended at a ferry crossing on the Naktong River. Totaling about 70 men and 5 officers, the small American force held the hill against repeated North Korean infantry attacks. As ammunition got low, men would venture out to where enemy dead lay and retrieve their weapons, ammunition, food and water. Failing to take the hill, the North Koreans resorted to observed and registered mortar fire. The mortar barrage started about 4 p.m. and continued until dark when the North Koreans again launched infantry attacks. All were beaten back by the defenders.
At Yongsan, the engineers, tankers and reconnaissance company continued to hold the hills north, east and south of the town. About 2 a.m. an outpost notified "D" Company, 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion, that a long line of white civilian clothes-clad men was moving toward their position. Challenged when the approached, the white-clad figures opened fire on "D" Company. A short sharp battle ensued with the enemy being driven back with heavy casualties. The white clothing made good targets. Shortly there after the North Koreans launched a tank-let attack against "D" Company, 2nd Engineers. This fight lasted until about 11 a.m. before being driven off. Around 3 p.m. "F" & "G" Companies, 9th Infantry launched a tank-supported counterattack through 2nd Engineer Battalion positions and on into Yongsan, retaking the town after a series of short, sharp battles. During these battles a number of T-34 tanks and Su-76 SP artillery guns were destroyed by American tank fire and engineer Bazooka teams. By evening North Korean forces had been driven back into the hills to the west of the town. At this point the 5th Marines were ordered to Yongsan while the 19th Infantry Regiment, 24th Division was ordered to the Susan-ni area some 8 air miles south of Miryang.
Meanwhile, in the 2nd Division area, the 1st Battalion, 38th Infantry had been cut off in the Changnyong area. Since the battalion had good defensive positions astride a road the North Koreans needed to sustain their advance, the battalion commander requested, and received, permission to defend his battalion's present location.
In the 35th Regiment, 25th Division area, the regiment continued to hold its blocking positions against repeated North Korean attacks but a platoon from "G" Company did lose their outpost position after an all day fight which saw the platoon reduced from 40 men and one officer to 29 men, 17 of whom were wounded, 11 seriously. The 29 did make it safely into "G" Company positions about midnight. Meanwhile, 2nd Battalion, 27th Infantry began an attack toward "G" Company, 35th Infantry area. At same time the 3rd Battalion, 27th Infantry (still technically the 3rd Battalion, 29th Infantry) is ordered to clear the road and hills east of 24th Infantry positions in the Sibidang Mountain.
In the P'ohang-dong - Kigye area, "K" Company, 2nd Battalion, 21st Infantry and a platoon of tanks attack well dug in North Koreans on Hill 99, located northwest of P'ohang-dong. The attack fails with heavy loses including 2 tanks from the 6th Medium Tank Battalion.
At 10 a.m. following a 37 minute bombing, napalming and strafing attack by UN aircraft and a massive artillery barrage on Hill 518 the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry attack up the hill but are stopped short of the crest before noon by heavy enemy fire from Hill 518 and from nearby Hill 490. The 1st Battalion withdrew down Hill 518 and that afternoon attack and take Hill 490. Meanwhile in the Tabu-dong--Ka-san Walled City area the North Koreans attacked and overran the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment positions on Hill 448, located 2 miles west of the Bowling Alley and 2 miles north of Tabu-dong. The 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry withdrew through 3d Battalion positions at Tabu-dong.
September 3, 1950
On Hill 209 in the Naktong Bulge area, the dwindling "B", "D" & "H" Company, 9th Infantry defenders continued to repulse repeated North Korean attacks although by now the number of effective, including lightly wounded, was down approximately 44 men and three officers. Meanwhile at Yongsan the 5th Marines began attack against the hills west of Yongsan along the Yongsan--Naktong River road while the 9th Infantry began a coordinated attack through the hills on the Marine's northern flank. The Marines advanced approximately 2 miles west during the day before digging in for the night. Farther to the north in the 38th Infantry sector, an enemy battalion had crossed the Naktong and infiltrated into the hills overlooking the regimental command post. This North Korean battalion attacked the CP at dawn but was repulsed although the fight in the hills around the CP lasted for two more days.
After an all-night fight towards "G" Company, 35th Infantry, the 2nd Battalion, 27th Infantry continued its advance toward "G" Company positions reaching the surrounded company at approximately 4 p.m. and, in the process, killing 275 enemy soldiers. It then continued on and retook the positions lost by "G" Company's 3rd Platoon. Meanwhile the 3rd Battalion, 27th Infantry launches an attack in Sibidang Mountain area. The attack makes good progress at first but is stopped by an enemy counterattack. The enemy attack is turned and by dusk the 3rd Battalion holds the high ground overlooking a curve in the Masan highway called the "Horseshoe."
Early in the morning, North Korean forces launch a well-coordinated attack against Capital ROK division forces in the Kigye area. The attack forces the Capital ROK Division to fall back and by dawn the North Koreans have penetrated to the vital east-west corridor road 3 miles east of An'gang-ni. To meet this new threat the 21st Infantry was withdrawn from the P'ohang-dong area and relocated in positions north of Kyongju. This left the 3rd Battalion, 9th Infantry, the 15th Field Artillery Battalion, "D" Battery, 865th AAA Battalion and "A" Battery, 933rd AAA Battalion to defend Yonil Air Field south of P'ohang-dong.
At 2 a.m. in the 8th Cavalry sector a North Korean Battalion, supported by 2 T-34 tanks attack the 3rd Battalion at Tabu-dong. The attack is turned back south of the town but the North Koreans now have the town. Later in the day, other North Korean troops drive defending South Korean National Police and I&R Platoon, 8th Cavalry, from their positions in the Walled City on Ka-san (Hill 902.) Because Ka-san gave the enemy an excellent view all the way to Taegu, the 1st wanted it back so, lacking infantry, sent "D" Company, 8th Combat Engineer Battalion to retake the mountain. The 2 engineer companies moved to the bottom of Hill 902 that evening. While this is taking place, in the 7th Cavalry sector, its 2nd Battalion attacked Hill 518 but the attack failed. Meanwhile large numbers of North Koreans are infiltrating, via large gaps between units, and taking up positions behind the 7th and 5th Cavalry Regiments.
September 4, 1950
On Hill 209 in the Naktong Bulge, the small "B", "D" & "H" Company defenders continued to hold against repeated enemy infantry attacks but by late afternoon were down 27 men and 2 officers. Ammunition was down to one or two 8-round clips per man so it was decided to abandon the position. At approximately 10 p.m. all survivors who could walk slipped off the hill and into the mountains to the east. Over the next few days 22 men and both officers made their way safely to American lines. Meanwhile the 5th Marines and 9th Infantry continued their attack westward against almost no opposition but in torrential rains. By nightfall the advance had gained another 3 miles.
To the south in the 35th Infantry area, the 2nd Battalion, 27th Infantry turned the recaptured hills back over to "G" Company and continued its advance up the supply road toward the 35th Infantry CP, only to learn "G" Company, 35th had lost the hills again so it turned around and retook these for a second time. The 2nd Battalion again turned the hills over to "G" Company and continued its advance on the supply road, only to find the North Koreans had closed it in back of them. Meanwhile, in the 24th Infantry area, the 3rd Battalion, 27th Infantry attacks due west and by the end of the day hold the high ground overlooking the Komam-ni Crossroads. Because of heavy casualties, "C" Company, 65th Combat Engineer Battalion is attached to the battalion.
In the east during the previous evening the ROK I Corps front collapsed and by 2.20 a.m. enemy troops were entering An'gang-ni forcing the Capital ROK Division CP to withdraw from the town. By 4 a.m. American tanks in the area ceased firing because North Korean and ROK troops had become intermingled and they couldn't tell friend from foe. At daylight, "G" Company, 21st Infantry discovered they were all alone at An'gang-ni and nearly surrounded by North Koreans. "G" Company held its positions until about 4 p.m. when it withdrew from the town and relocated eastward near the bridge over the Hyongsan River. Meanwhile the rest of the 2nd Battalion fought its way southeast toward Kyongju. After destroying an enemy roadblock 3 miles southeast of An'gang-ni, the 2nd battalion commander discovered "G" Company wasn't with the battalion so turned the battalion around and fought back to where "G" Company was located near the bridge over the Hyongsan River. Once the battalion was reunited, they fought their way south toward Kyongju again. During this 3 of the newly arrive M-46 Patton tanks had treads blown off by enemy fire and were abandoned after being set afire with thermite grenades. As they withdrew to Kyongju, enemy units established roadblocks on the Kyongju-An'gang-ni road, the closest withing 3 miles of Kyongju. To block the expected enemy advance in this are, the 21st Infantry was placed in position in the hills northwest of Kyongju. However, the attack on Kyongju did not develop. Instead the North Koreans turned east and headed for the air field at Yonil.
In the 7th Cavalry sector the 2nd Battalion attacks and takes Hill 303 just north of Waegwan. They hold despite repeated, heavy counterattacks. While the North Koreans attack Hill 303, more North Korean troops infiltrate between the 2nd and 3rd Battalions and occupy Hill 464 to east of the 2nd Battalion on Hill 303. This hill is east of Tabu-dong -- Waegwan road, thus effectively blocks use of this supply road. While this is happening, "D" Company, 8th Combat Engineer battalion attack up Hill 902 (Ka-san) beginning their advance at noon. After several small encounters with North Koreans, reached the summit of Hill 755, the south arm of the Hill 902 crest. Thirty minutes latter a North Korean battalion attacked "D" Company positions. This attack was repulsed but did cut off a reconnaissance patrol from "D" Company. Members of this patrol were captured several days later.
September 5, 1950
In the Naktong Bulge area the North Koreans launched a furious counterattack against the 9th Infantry at dawn. The attack was beaten back with heavy casualties on both sides but the advance continued, both in the 9th Infantry sector and the 5th Marine sector. That night at midnight the Marines began leaving their positions in the Naktong Bulge for Pusan where they were to board waiting transports. Meanwhile the enemy was finally cleared from the hills to the west of the 38th Infantry CP and a relief force made contact with the cut-off 1st Battalion at Changnyong.
In the 35th Infantry sector south of the Nam River, the 2nd Battalion, 27th Infantry, had received a supply drop of ammunition so began its attack again. By dusk it had cleared North Korean troops from the road and hills overlooking the supply road. Meanwhile in the 24th Infantry sector the 3rd Battalion turned its attack toward Haman and drove through to the 24th Infantry CP there. While clean up operations continued for several more days, the offensive against the 35th Infantry sector had been defeated but fighting continued in the 24th Infantry sector and is about to begin in the 5th Infantry sector to the south as the enemy shifts its attack in that direction.
At P'ohang-dong on the east coast North Koreans break through ROK lines and occupy the town. Meanwhile the U.S. 24th Infantry Division is ordered to Kyongju. Meanwhile, to the northwest of Kyongju, other North Korean troops break through ROK lines north of Yongch'on, (on the important Taegu-P'ohang-dong corridor) entering the town that evening.
In the 1st Cavalry Division sector, the 5th & 7th Cavalry Regiments are ordered to withdraw to south and east, thus leaving Waegwan and hills to north and east of there in North Korean hands once they withdraw.. Meanwhile 8th Army and ROK Army Headquarters relocate from Taegu to Pusan. On Ka-san, in the 8th Cavalry sector, the North Koreans again attack "D" Company, 8th Combat Engineer Battalion positions on Hill 755. The attack is repulsed. About 10 a.m. the advance platoon, "E" Company, 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, arrive at the summit of Hill 755 and join the engineers but by early afternoon the engineers and infantry are driven from the summit and withdraw to their units south of the Tabu-dong area.
At the northern end of 2nd Division area the British 27th Brigade replaces the 3rd Battalion, 23rd Infantry Regiment, which has been holding this area in the southernmost 1st Cavalry Division area.
September 6, 1950
In the 7th Cavalry Sector heavy rains slowed the withdrawal and persistent enemy attacks took a heavy toll. During this, "G" Company on Hill 464 is cut off from the 2nd Battalion and the 2nd Battalion is cut off from the 7th Cavalry Regiment. Meanwhile in the 8th Cavalry sector the North Koreans advance and occupy Hill 570 2 miles southwest of Ka-san and overlooking the Taegu road. At the same time other North Korean units establish a roadblock 3 miles south of Tabu-dong. Later in the afternoon the roadblock is destroyed and surrounding hills cleared of North Koreans.
In the northeast the 19th Infantry, 24th Division, arrived at Kyongju shortly after midnight. The rest of the division arrived in the next few hours.
September 7, 1950
In the 7th Cavalry sector, "G" Company safely withdraws from Hill 464 and rejoins the 2nd Battalion at Hill 380. Once the battalion was together, it withdrew southwest into the 5th Cavalry Regiment sector. That night the 7th Cavalry, minus its 1st Battalion which is attached to the 5th Cavalry Regiment, is ordered into division reserve at Taegu. Meanwhile the 1st Cavalry Division and the 1st ROK Division are ordered to retake Ka-san.
At dawn the 21st Infantry, 24th Division, attacked up the Kyongju-Yongch'on road, meeting almost no resistance. The attack was halted about noon after gaining several miles. A ROK battalion relieved the 21st which returned to its former positions just northwest of Kyongju.
Throughout the previous week, North Korean artillery and mortars, along with infantry probes, had continued in the P'il-bong, Battle Mountain and Sobuk Mountain area at the south end of the 24th Infantry, 25th Division sector. The probing attacks had been turned back but early in the morning of the 7th a battalion-sized North Korean attack drove ROK and American defenders from Battle Mountain. The 3rd Battalion, 27th Infantry was ordered to retake the lost ground.
September 8, 1950
In the Changnyong area the North Koreans launched a desperate, all-out attack against the 23rd Infantry which was now defending this terrain. Fighting continued throughout the day and into the night in a see-saw battle in which both sides suffered heavy casualties. But in the end, the 23rd still held its positions and the North Korean 2nd Infantry Division had been virtually destroyed.
In the Waegwan area, the 5th Cavalry is driven from its positions 3 miles east of the town and withdraws to a new defense line consisting of Hills 203 and 174. The North Korean advance is stopped at this point and a see-saw battle develops that continues for several days. The 3rd Battalion 8th Calvary mount an attack against Hill 570 south of Ka-san. The attack partially succeeds but the crest of Hill 570 remains in North Korean hands.
Fighting between the Capital ROK Division and North Korean forces continued in the hills bordering the valley from An'gang-ni to Kyongju.
On Battle Mountain, the 3rd Battalion, 27th Infantry attacked but failed to recapture the mountain and a see-saw battle for the mountain developed that would continue until September 14. Meanwhile the 1st & 2nd Battalions, 27th Infantry went into division reserve while the 5th Infantry was ordered into army reserve near the Taegu front. For all intents the "Great North Korean Naktong Offensive" was over in the 25th Division area.
In the Inch'on Approach Island area, USN Lt. Eugene Clark's irregulars take Taemuui-do, an island on the north side of Flying Fish Channel and later in the day take Yongyu-do in the same area. Meanwhile National Police forces retake several other small islands to the north and south of Flying Fish Channel.
September 9, 1950
Around 1 a.m. North Korean attacked "K" Company, 19th Infantry troops defending Hill 300 located about half way between An'gang-ni and Kyongju. "K" Company was driven off this hill and the North Koreans defended their gain throughout the day against repeated counterattacks. Meanwhile to the east, North Korean forces had infiltrated and taken up positions in the hills west, southwest and south of Yonil Air Field so task force was organized to neutralize the threat. Task Force Davidson consisted of 19th Infantry (less its 3rd Battalion,) 3rd Battalion, 9th Infantry, 9th Infantry Regimental Tank Company, 2 batteries of antiaircraft automatic weapons (quad-50 caliber machine-guns mounted on half tracks); "A" Company, 3rd Combat Engineer Battalion, and miscellaneous other units.
September 10, 1950
Task Force Davidson departed the Kyongju area around dawn, going south, then east and finally back north, arriving at Yongdok-tong, a small hamlet a mile south of Yonil Air Field, about 7 p.m. That night ROK troops in the attacked Hill 131 and secured it. Meanwhile other ROK forces attacked up the Kyongju -- Yongch'on road, clearing it and then the town of Yongch'on, and finally advancing 8 miles up the Yongch'on -- Andong road before stopping.
In the 1st Cavalry Division sector west and north of Taegu the division has been driven back in all areas so its front line now was: 8th Cavalry Regiment astride the Tabu-dong--Taegu road six miles north of Taegu, the 7th Cavalry Regiment the right rear of the 8th Cavalry in the Kumho River Valley northeast of the Taegu Airfield and the 5th Cavalry Regiment astride the Taegu--Waegwan road 8 miles northwest of Taegu. The 8th Combat Engineer Battalion was holding the bridge across the Kumho River near its juncture with Naktong east of Taegu. From there the 1st ROK Division defended hills to the east in the direction of Yongch'on.
September 11, 1950
At dawn the 19th Infantry, 1st Battalion leading, passed around ROK positions on Hill 131 and captured the first hill mass 2 miles to the west. The 2nd Battalion passed through the 1st Battalion and mounted an attack on the main enemy positions located on Unje Mountain (Hill 482.) Fire from entrenched enemy machine-guns and troops stalled the 2nd Battalion attack for the rest of the day. Meanwhile north of Kyongju the 3rd Battalion, 19th Infantry and ROK troops, after a week-long battle, captured Hill 300.
Confused fighting develops in the 8th Cavalry sector as the tries to retake Hill 570 but fails. As this attack is going on North Koreans attack and take the north slope of Hill 314 2 miles to the southeast of Hill 570, putting them closer to Taegu. This hill is defended by a ROK training battalion sent into the line, under-equipped and under-trained. Even so they fight well and prevent the North Koreans from breaking through.
September 12, 1950
The 8th Cavalry Regiment, with the 3rd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment attached, attacks Hill 314 and secures the hill after a bloody battle. Farther to the east the 1st ROK Division attacks in the direction of P'algong-san (P'algong Mountain, a 4000 high mountain in the Ka-san area) and Ka-san.
Shortly after dawn, the 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry, again attacked Hill 482 following an bombing and napalm attack by South African F-51s and an artillery barrage. This time their attack succeeded and the hill secured by noon. It was turned over to ROK Army control that afternoon and the 19th Infantry withdrew to Yongdok-tong. Meanwhile the 3rd ROK Division in the P'ohang-dong area went on the offensive retaking the town and to the west the Capital ROK Division began advancing in the Kigye area. For all intents, the battle for the Kigye -- P'ohang-dong area was over.
During the early morning hours, a diversionary landing intended to draw enemy forces from the Inch'on area is made at Kunsan, a port city about 50 miles south of Inch'on, by the 1st GHQ Raider Company and a small group of British Commandos. The Raiders landed on Robb Island, a small island at the mouth of Kunsan Harbor and were withdrawn about dawn with the loss of 3 KIA.
September 13, 1950
In the Inch'on Approach Island area, all islands except Wolmi-do, attached to Inch'on by a causeway, Yongchong-do, an island 3 miles west of Wolmi-do, and the lighthouse island of P'almi-do are under UN control.
Seesaw fighting continues in the 1st Cavalry Division sector.
September 14, 1950
With Hill 314 to use a fire base, the 8th Cavalry attacks and takes part of Hill 570. Meanwhile the 1st ROK Division advances and takes Hill 755, south of Ka-san and advance elements of the division enter the walled city at the crest. Heavy fighting develops at ROK try to take the Walled City.
September 15, 1950
Heavy fighting in the 1st Cavalry Division sector continue at all points north and west of Taegu in a confused series of small and medium battles but the division holds against enemy counterattacks and makes small gains.
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