ADVANCE INTO NORTH KOREA
October 1 to November 22, 1950
Compiled by Ed Evanhoe, November 2002
General MacArthur issues a surrender demand that North Korea surrender. China's Cho En-lai warns "The Chinese people will not tolerate foreign aggression and will not stand aside should the imperialists wantonly invade territory of their neighbor."
The ROK 3rd Division on Korea's east coast pursues communist troops across the 38th Parallel with no resistance. An American Army observation plane dropped orders to them allowing entry into North Korea. The 3rd Division had pursued the enemy since they began retreating following the U.S. Inchon invasion. The Capital Division follows soon after. Red China Premier Chou En Lai says that his government "will not stand aside" if "the imperialists wantonly invade" North Korea.
India warns the UN that China told them it will enter the war if U.N. forces cross the 38th Parallel.
General MacArthur issues "United Nations Command Operations Order 2" which is the plan to order for U.N. forces to cross into North Korea. ROKA troops are already 20 to 30 miles north of the 38th Parallel on the east coast at this time.
U.S. Army forces in Taejon report finding the bodies of 1,100 South Koreans and 30 Americans killed by the North Koreans Sept. 27-28 as they were retreating from the city.
The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade is airlifted to Kimpo Air Base. It becomes part of U.S. I-Corps.
Eighth Army issues its attack order across the 38th Parallel calling for U.S. I-Corps to seize a line west of the Imjin River. I-Corps would then conduct operations northward, the main effort being spearheaded by the 1st Cavalry Division. The U.S. 24th Division and ROK 1st Division are to protect the Corps' flanks and form a reserve.
Allied air forces began a three-day bombing campaign against Wonsan in North Korea and roads between Antung and Pyongyang. Aircrews claim they knocked out a 100-mile long convoy moving heavy guns and other military supplies coming from Manchuria
U.S. Marines capture Uijongbu just 10 miles south of the 38th Parallel and receive orders to redeploy to Inch'on for a projected landing at Wonsan on the east coast. Meanwhile the 7th Infantry Division receives orders to redeploy to Pusan to load out for the same projected landing. This entails a road march of 360 miles.
The ROK government charges North Korea with the murder of at least 10,000 South Korean civilians in Seoul.
Gen. MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo estimates that since June 25 North Korean losses are close to 200,000 with about 40,000 taken prisoner. Spokesmen estimate the communists still have between 100,000 and 200,000 new soldiers, but most of them are untrained recruits.
The Republic of Korea 3rd and Capital Divisions run into light resistance as they drive toward Changjon, 55 miles above the 38th Parallel. To the west, ROK 6th and 8th Divisions stop at the 38th Parallel to wait for resupply before crossing into North Korea.
Red China Radio says the Korean War "has just begun" and that it will be "a drawn-out war of attrition perilous for foreign aggressors." Mao Tse Tung has already decided that China will enter the war.
The ROK 6th and 8th Divisions begin crossing the 38th Parallel in the central part of the country and began advancing toward the Ch'orwon area (known as "The Iron Triangle.")
The 1st, 5th and 11th Marines virtually complete their move to Inch'on.
The U.S. First Cavalry Division's 16th Reconnaissance Company becomes the first American force to enter North Korea by crossing the 38th Parallel near Kaesong. It begins attacking north toward Pyongyang while bypassing Kumch'on, where there is a large communist force. The next day, the ROK 6th Division joins the American fighting in the area The 7th Marines begin their move to Inch'on.
Following a debate on the future of Korea after the communists are defeated, the UN General Assembly votes to "reunify and rehabilitate" Korea. Part of the resolution gives UN forces permission to go into North Korea. The United States and Great Britain promise to leave the country when the fighting ends
By evening the 7th and 8th Cavalry Regiments have secured I-Corps' assembly area north of Kaesong. The 8th Cavalry Regiment begin their attack up the Kaesong-Kumch'on road. The 7th Cavalry Regiment began attacking toward Hanp'ori, a small town where the main P'yongyang-Seoul highway crossed the Yesong River. It was to establish a roadblock there, hopefully to trap NK forces being driven north by the 5th & 8th Cavalry Regiments.
ROKA activates its reconstituted 5th Division. It also activated the 1st Guerrilla Group consisting of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th & 6th Guerrilla Battalions.
The ROK 3rd and Capital Divisions are on the outskirts of Wonsan, 110 air miles north of the 38th Parallel.
As the 7th Division made its road march to Pusan, its headquarters convoy was ambushed at Mun'gyong Pass, suffering 6 KIA plus several vehicles destroyed. The 1st Battalion, 17th Infantry cleared the pass of enemy within a few hours and movement south continued.
The 8th Cavalry advance is slowed by heavily mined roads and roadblocks.
ROK 3rd and Capital Divisions complete a 10-day, 110-mile drive north of the 38th Parallel by entering the east coast port of Wonsan. They found that allied warplanes had destroyed 30 percent of the city.
President Truman announces that he will meet with Gen. MacArthur somewhere in the Pacific within the next few days. The purpose of the meeting was to talk about "the final phase of UN action in Korea." He also said America has "absolutely no interest in obtaining any special position [or] bases or other military installation in [Korea]."
The Army announces that it is reforming Ranger units and one will eventually be assigned to each division.
The ROK 8th Division and the 7th Regiment, 6th Division converge on P'yonggang, the west end of the Iron Triangle.
The ROK 3rd Division drive through Wonsan and secure the city.
The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade, along with B Company, 6th Medium Tank Battalion, crossed the Imjin River and followed the 5th Cavalry northeast our of Kaesong. However, they had been given the wrong route so soon were bogged down when the road turned into an oxcart trail. Meanwhile the 7th Cavalry, having reached the Yesong River the previous evening, crossed, thus closing the western escape route for the North Koreans. And in an unusual supply move, 500 tons of fuel, food and ammunition arrived at the crossing via 15 LCV's sent up the Han River to the Yesong River and then up the Yesong to the 7th Cavalry crossing point.
Planes from British carriers hit the west coast port of Chinnamp'o near Pyongyang. The air strike causes nervous North Koreans to gear up for ground attacks against the communist capital.
Halfway to Kumch'on, the 8th Cavalry run into a strong roadblock that halts its advance. To its west, the 5th Cavalry also runs into a strong point but is able to clear it after heavy fighting.
President Truman flies to the Pacific to meet with Gen. Douglas MacArthur on Wake Island.
With their escape route from Kumch'on blocked by the 7th Cavalry, the North Korean 27th & 19th Division fought desperately to hold the 5th & 8th Cavalry at bay while trying to dislodge the 7th Cavalry at the Yesong River crossing. The North Koreans were able to do neither so their pocket continued to shrink.
Retreating North Koreans leave behind the bodies of 530 anti-communist political prisoners in Wonsan in North Korea
The battle of Kumch'on continues as the North Koreans fight to hold back the 5th & 8th Cavalry while the main body tries to escape via the Yesong crossing. However, once there the 7th Cavalry, aided by close air support, not only holds the crossing but kills over 500 enemy soldiers and destroys most their vehicles and tanks. Late in the day Kumch'on falls to the 1st Cavalry Division and elements of the 8th Cavalry link up with the 7th Cavalry while elements of the 5th Cavalry link up 8th Cavalry elements southeast of Kumch'on.
Part of the estimated 50,000 North Korean troops still in the south capture Samch'ok on the eastern coast and begin to menace other towns and villages in the area.
President Truman meets with Gen. MacArthur on Wake Island,
ROK troops find 500 bodies of captured South Korean soldiers when they enter Yonghung north of Wonsan.
The 1st ROK Division advances up the Mu-dong - Suan - P'yongyang highway and enters Suan during the afternoon.
A small X-Corps advance staff, under command of Lt.Col. William J. McCaffery, Deputy Chief of Staff, landed by air at Wonsan and set up. At the same time, Amphibious Group One and the LST's of the amphibious tractor group sailed from Inch'on for Wonsan.
At the Foreign Missions Conference Oct. 16 in New York it is estimated that at least 30 Korean Christian leaders were killed while the communists held Seoul
ROKA activates ROK III Corps, consisting of the ROK 5th & 11th Divisions with the mission of destroying cut off North Korean troops in the area south of the Seoul-Ch'unch'on-Inje-Yangyang axis
The 1st ROK Division continues its advance toward P'yongyang, reaching a point about 20 miles southeast of North Korea's capital in the late afternoon. Meanwhile the 1st Cavalry Division advances up Kaesong-P'yongyang highway reaching Sariwon and Hwangju, about 20 miles south of P'yongyang. The 24th Infantry Division advances up the Haeju-Chaeryong-Chinnamp'o highway, reaching Chaeryong.
The main body of 1st Marine Division departed Inch'on for Wonsan.
The ROK Capital Division captures Hamhung and its port, Hungnam.
The U.S. 1st Cavalry Division and the ROK 1st Division, supported by U.S. tanks for the first time, continue their push toward P'yongyang.
South Korean soldiers entering Hamhung find 700 more anticommunists killed by North Korean troops.
To the south of Pyongyang, the U.S. 24th Infantry Division and British units close on Chinnamp'o. The Republic of Korea 6th, 7th and 8th Divisions drive from the east to join the fight around Pyongyang. 1st Cavalry Division troops enter P'yongyang from the south while ROK 1st Division troops enter from the east and north.
North Korean soldiers gun down 68 Americans after they were taken off a train north of Pyongyang in what came to be known as The Twin Tunnels Massacre. Twenty-one Americans survived.
Before going to Pyongyang, MacArthur observes the parachute assault of 4,100 men of the 187th Airborne Regiment into the Sinch'on-Sunch'on area of North Korea with the mission of cutting off fleeing North Koreans and, hopefully, liberating American and allied POW's being moved north by the North Koreans.
The Red Chinese secretly move four 30,000-man field armies across the Yalu River into North Korea. Three of the armies are in western North Korea to face the Americans and South Korean soldiers streaming up from Pyongyang. The fourth is in the east. Preparations are underway to move two more armies into North Korea in October.
Three survivors of a "death march" from Seoul to Pyongyang tell Pyongyang liberators most of the 283 Americans captured by the North Koreans died in the march.
1,800 more soldiers from the 187th RCT (Airborne) parachute into the area. Jeeps, howitzers and other equipment are also dropped. Before they can assemble, they miss North Korean leaders scurrying north out of Pyongyang, as well as U.N. prisoners being moved north. While the main force takes high ground around the dropzones, I and F Companies moves south toward Yongyu on the main highway/rail line. They meet heavy resistence and I Company is forced to withdraw with heavy casualties.
The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade was close enough to hear the heavy fighting taking place to their north so began advancing before dawn toward the battle and attacked. The battle was over by noon with surviving North Koreans fleeing to the hills. Many did not make it.
Meanwhile C Company, 6th Medium Tank Battalion, designated "Task Force Elephant," started from P'yongyang by way of Sunch'on for Ku-Jang-Dong to block the railroad there. It arrived at 2200 and then turned west to Kunu-ri, twenty miles downstream in the Ch'ongch'on Valley. The ROK 1st Division followed the task force.
At dawn the ROK 1st Division advanced down the Ch'ongch'on Valley to Anju, just inland from the Yellow Sea. More than 40 American POWs who had escaped were found by the ROK's and shipped immediately to P'yongyang. American engineer units arrived at Anju shortly after the ROK 1st Division did and immediately began repairing the bridge across the Ch'ongch'on River.
Spokesmen at U.N. headquarters in Tokyo said Oct. 23 that by Oct. 20 they have confirmed information the North Koreans had killed 300 captured Americans and 23,000 South Koreans as of October 20th.
By 0900 U.S. engineers had repaired the bridge over the Ch'ongch'on River so wheeled traffic, including 2-1/2 ton GMC trucks could use it. Meanwhile a tank ford was found 3 miles east of the bridge and the U.S. 6th Medium Tank Battalion crossed the river via the ford. By evening the entire 1st ROK Division was on the north side of the river and began advancing Northeast toward Unsan. At the same time the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade was crossing at Sinanju, west of Anju using assault boats. Meanwhile the U.S. 24th Infantry Division was moving toward Anju-Sinanju from just north of P'yongyang.
To the east of Anju two ROK divisions, the 6th and the 8th, took up the advance out of Kunu-ri. The ROK 6th Division turned northeast and advanced up the Ch'ongch'on River on the road that led through Huich'on to Kanggye. East of the ROK 6th Division, the ROK 8th Division reached Tokch'on where it turned north toward the Ch'ongch'on River at Kujang-dong. It arrived two days later.
The ROK government announce that in the first 125 trials of South Koreans for collaborating with the communists, 62 people received death sentences, 55 were given prison sentences, two were sent to POW camps to be treated as members of North Korean forces and six were freed.
The advance party for Netherlands Battalion and the British 29th Brigade arrive in Korea.
Units from the ROK I Corps, which is part of the U.S. X Corps, capture Chinese soldiers near the Chosin Reservoir. The communist soldiers tell their captors there are many Communist China Forces (CCF) in the area.
The ROK 6th Division reaches Kojang, a town 18 miles south of Ch'osan on the Yalu River.
The 3rd Battalion, 2nd Regiment, ROK 6th Division, started northwest from the little crossroads village of Onjong, 10 air miles northwest of Unsan, heading for Pukchin. Eight miles west of Onjong the battalion came under enemy fire. Thinking this was small delaying action, the battalion dismounted from its vehicles, only to find it was a Chinese trop. In the battle that followed the battalion was decimated, losing approximately 350 or its 750 man strength, plus its American advisor, Lt. Glen C. Jones, who was captured, only to die later in a POW camp.
As soon as word filtered back to the ROK 2nd Battalion, 2nd Regiment their 3rd Battalion was heavily engaged the battalion moved to support their sister battalion while the 1st Battalion and regimental headquarters moved up to Onjong.. On the way to help the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Battalion saw enemy on the hills above the road so sent patrols out. One patrol came back with a Chinese prisoner who told them Chinese forces had been waiting in the mountains around Pukchin since October 17th. A little later, CCF troops cut off the 2nd Battalion but it managed to evade the trap and retreated to Onjong where it rejoined the 1st Battalion and regimental headquarters.
To the west in the Unsan area the Elements of D Company, U.S. 6th Medium Tank Battalion and the ROK 15th Infantry Regiment advanced north of town where it ran into stiff resistence from Chinese troops blocking the road. Meanwhile the ROK 1st Division's 12th Regiment turned west at Unsan but just outside of town found their way blocked by Chinese troops. The division's 11th Regiment, bringing up the rear of the column stopped on the road several miles south of Unsan.
At 0300 the Chinese attack Onjong in force. ROK troops break but are stopped by their officers and NCO/s at the edge of town. But at 0600 the Chinese attack the new positions forcing the two battalions and regimental headquarters to withdraw eastward only to find a strong Chinese roadblock 3 miles east of Onjong. At this point the regiment broke and everyone headed for the hills, including the three KMAG advisors, two of whom made it to safety but the third, Capt. Paul V.S. Liles, was captured.
To the north of Unsan, the ROK 15th Infantry Regiment is forced to fall back toward Unsan because of heavy Chinese attacks. The CO of the U.S. 6th Medium Tank Battalion, fearing his tanks are about to be cut off and overrun, withdraws his tanks to the high ground southeast of Unsan. The 11th Regiment advanced to Unsan to support the 12th Regiment fighting west of town but had to be turned around to face Chinese troops who had cut the road south of the town. During the day these Chinese troops forced the 11th Regiment to withdraw north to the edge of Unsan.
At dawn Major Harry Fleming, KMAG advisor to the ROK 7th Regiment, accompanies the regiment's reconnaissance platoon to Ch'osan. They find North Korean troops crossing into China via a floating footbridge. Major Fleming returned to the ROK 7th Regiment that afternoon, leaving the reconnaissance platoon to hold Ch'osan. This was the only 8th Army (as opposed to X-Corps far to the east) to reach the Yalu.
The First Marine Division Lands at Wonsan on North Korea's east coast. The Marines had been scheduled to attack the city in a landing similar to Inchon, but after South Korean troops took the city by land, the assault didn't have to be made.
After several days of speculation about whether American forces would take up positions along the Yalu, President Truman says at a news conference that South Koreans will man border posts. American, British and Australian forces will hold down the western area, while ROK units will control the central and eastern part of North Korea.
When the 2nd Regiment broke, the ROK 6th Division's 19th Regiment (less on battalion) was in Huich'on. So was the 10th Regiment, ROK 8th Division. ROK II Corps ordered these troops to advance on Onjong and recover lost vehicles, artillery and supplies.
An airdrop by 10 C-119s improves the ROK 1st Division's position at Unsan. Fresh ammunition supplies allow the 11th & 12th Regiments to counterattack and regain lost ground.
Seven LST's carrying the 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division, depart Pusan for Iwon, a port town 150 miles northeast of Wonsan.
Communist China enters the war. About 20,000 Chinese and that many North Koreans attack South Korean and American forces in the region stretching from Unsan to Huichon about 55 miles below the Yalu. The ROK 6th Division is forced to withdraw from positions they established a day earlier on the Yalu. They and the 7th and 8th Divisions are on the defensive. A regiment of the 1st Cavalry Division is trapped near Unsan. The Reds have many new Russian tanks and .81mm rockets. More troops and equipment are being brought in from China.
India expresses "surprise and regret" that China has joined in the war. China immediately replies saying it is "entirely the domestic problem of China," which tolerates no "foreign interference." It is also reveals that it invaded Tibet with nearly 50,000 troops Oct. 19, and those troops were advancing on the capital, Lhasa.
Fighting in the Unsan are remained fairly quiet throughout the day but General Walker was sufficiently concerned about the area to order the 1st Cavalry Division for movement to the Unsan area with the 8th Cavalry to be division point.
The ROK 2nd & 19th Regiments reached a point overlooking Onjong but this was as far as they got. In a matter of hours they too had been cut off by Chinese forces and defeated, losing their own vehicles and artillery as survivors fled for their lives via mountain trails. Needless to say the events in the Onjong area cut of the 7th Regiment on the Yalu River at Ch'osan. The 7th Regiment was ordered to withdraw but they informed headquarters they couldn't unless they were resupplied with fuel and ammunition. An airdrop was arranged.
In the X-Corps area in far northeast Korea, a"flying column" from the ROK Capital Division captures Songjin, 105 air miles northeast of Hungnam. Meanwhile the Capital Division's 1st Regiment approached P'ungsan, a town inland approximately half way between the coast and Korea-China border on Iwon-Cinch'ong-ni-Hyesanjin road.
The 8th Cavalry Regiment begins its move to Unsan.
Far to the west the 24th Infantry Division and the British 27th Commonwealth Brigade enter Ch'ongju on the Anju-Sinuiju highway. Ch'ongju is approximately 40 miles from the Yalu River.
In the X-Corps area in far northeast Korea the U.S. 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division lands unopposed at Iwon. Once ashore, the 1st Battalion, 49th Field Artillery Battalion and A Company, 13th Engineer Battalion advance northwest 50 miles to the town of Cho-ri on the Iwon-Hyesanjin road. From Cho-ri the 7th Division was to advance the 70 air miles to the China border at Hyesanjin.
The ROK 7th Regiment began moving south at dawn but ran into a Chinese roadblock approximately 20 miles south of Kojang, An all-day battle began. With the help of TAC air controllers, the ROK troops were able to hold off repeated Chinese attacks but when dark fell and TAC air was no longer available, the regiment was overrun. Major Fleming was the only American to survive this battle but was captured around dawn the next morning..
The 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment arrives at Unsan. At the time the ROK line was approximately 8000 yards north of Unsan but being pushed back.
Following the collapse of ROK II Corps, the ROK 8th Division was ordered to withdraw to the Ch'ongch'on River and form a defense line from Yongbyon eastward to the River at Kujang-dong and for the ROK 7th Division to form a defense line from Kujang-dong southward toward Tokch'on.
X Corps orders the First Marines to relieve the ROK I Corps around the Chosin (Changjin) Reservoir. They begin to move overland to assemble at Hamhung.
In X-Corps area the ROK Capital Division's 18th Regiment reaches the south end of the Pujon Reservoir (about 60 miles due north of Hamhung.)
In far northeast Korea the U.S. 17th Infantry Regiment's headquarters and 1st Battalion move from Cho-ri to P'ungsan (approximately half way between Iwon and Hyesanjin.) They meet no resistance since the 1st Regiment, ROK Capital Division had already cleared the road to that point.
The 2nd & 3rd Battalions, 8th Cavalry Regiment arrive at Unsan and relieve the ROK 12th Regiment.
Chinese forces press hard against the newly formed ROK II Corps defense line north and east of Kunu-ri. CCF broke through the ROK 16 Regiment (8th Division) near its boundary with the ROK 1st Division to its west.
Five Russian men and three women, apparently connected with Russian biological warfare in North Korea, are taken into protective custody by the Army after they said they did not want to return to Russia.
The situation at Unsan was, to say the least critical. Chinese troops has set up a roadblock four miles south of the town and were attacking Unsan from the north and west. At the roadblock two companies from the 1st Battalion attacked to break the block and were engaged with large enemy forces. By afternoon the Chinese attack north of Unsan against the ROK 15th Regiment had gained strength and gradually had extended west into the 8th Cavalry zone. The first probing attacks by the CCF came at 1700 against the 1st Battalion on the right flank. The situation worsened when the Chinese mounted a general attack against the 1st Battalion at 1930. Heavy fighting continued but at approximately 2100 the Chinese found a weak point in 1st Battalion lines and began pushing troops through the opening. About the same time it became clear the ROK 15th Regiment had ceased to exist as a fighting unit, leaving the battalion's southeast flank open. Tanks guarding the bridge reported large groups of men across the river to the east were moving south All 1st Battalion non-combat vehicles were ordered to move southeast to the ford across the Kuryong River (in the ROK 1st Division zone) and head for Ipsok. About the same time the 2nd Battalion commander ordered his vehicles to do the same. These vehicles made it safely to Ipsok.
At 2300, with much sounding of bugles, the Chinese extended their attacks westward to the 2nd Battalion area and in a short time had penetrated the Battalion's right flank and encircled its left flank. By midnight both battalions had enemy roaming rear positions and both were almost out of ammunition. About the same time Gen. Gay, 1st Cavalry Division Commander, ordered the withdrawal of the 8th Cavalry Regiment from Unsan but by then it was too late for many 1st and 2nd battalion men as the withdrawal turned into a route with small units cut off from one another and tried to escape across the Kuryong River. Most of the support troops made it out since they were the first to leave. Those who came later did so in small groups. For all intents, the 8th Cavalry Regiment had ceased to be combat effective.
On the south side of the Ch'ongch'on River, Chinese forces had pushed the ROK 7th Division back to the vicinity of Won-ni. This resulted in a gap between its left flank and Eight Army. Thus threatening Eighth Army's center at Unsan. The U.S. 2nd Division was hurriedly assembled in the vicinity of Sunch'on and ordered north to Kunu-ri to plug the gap to the east of there.
Far to the northwest near the Yalu River, the 24th Infantry Division and British 27th Commonwealth Brigade are, not knowing what is happening in the ROK II Corps and the Unsan area, are stunned to receive orders to withdraw back to the Ch'ongch'on River.
In far northeast Korea, the U.S. 17th Infantry Regiment and the ROK 1st Regiment repulsed a strong North Korean attack two miles north of P'ungsan.
The 7th Marine Regiment, First Marine Division, relieved the Republic of Korea I Corps west of Chosin Reservoir, and immediately ran into the Chinese 14th Division, To the Marine's northeast the battle two miles north of P'ungsan continued.
The First Cavalry Division's 8th Cavalry Regiment ends two days of fighting with the Chinese 19th Division around Unsan in western North Korea. The Chinese withdraw into the hills around the village
The commander of Australian troops in Korea wounded three days earlier, Lt. Col. Charles H. Green, 31, dies from combat wounds.
Completing its withdrawal from the Ch'ongju area, the 24th Infantry Division takes up defensive positions north of the Ch'ongch'on River in the Anju-Pakch'on areas.
After leaving Taech'on the evening the British 27th Commonwealth Brigade takes up defensive positions in the low hills around Pakch'on -- a the northeast corner of the bridgehead. Chinese troops enter Taech'on less than an hour after the British leave. The 19th Infantry Regiment, 24th Division take up positions just north of the Ch'ongch'on and northeast of Anju. Once in position, the ROK 1st Division begins withdrawing through the regiment. The 5th Regimental Combat Team, 24th Division take up defensive positions at Kunu-ri backing up ROK II Corps which has been squeezed into a small area at Won-ni, four miles northeast of Kunu-ri.
In far northeast Korea, the ROK Capital Division's "flying column," attacking up the coast road leading to the Soviet Union, capture Kilchu, then continue attacking up the coast road toward Ch'ongjin. Other ROK units turn northwest at Kilchu and begin advancing toward Hyesanjin on the China border. Meanwhile the U.S. 17th Infantry's battle two miles north of P'ungsan had abated.
The 65th Infantry Regiment, 3rd U.S. Infantry Division lands at Wonsan. Even before the 65th's arrival at Wonsan the 7th Marine Regiment had moved to Hamhung and then on to the Chosin (Changjin) Reservoir area and was already engaged in its first battle with Chinese troops 3 miles below Changjin Power Plant #3. A six-day battle ensued as the Marines slowly took one terrain feature after another.
The ROK 1st Division completes its withdrawal to the south side of the Ch'ongch'on River by noon. Meanwhile the Chinese make a push to capture Kunu-ri and Hill 622, a large mountain cresting 3 miles northeast of Kunu-ri that dominates the Ch'ongch'on River Valley. In the ensuing battle the Hill 622 changes hands several times during the day but in the end ROK forces are able to hold on. Simultaneously Chinese forces infiltrate around 1st Battalion, 19th Infantry positions while other forces attack from the front. The battalion folds losing all its heavy equipment and vehicles but most troops are able to evade capture and cross the Ch'ongch'on River to friendly territory. As soon as this situation develops, the 3rd Battalion, 19th tries to retake 1st Battalion positions but stiff enemy resistence stops the attack.
The enemy struck with equal force in attacks against 8th Army flank at Kunu-ri and against the commonwealth brigade at the western end of the bridgehead. These attacks were turned.
The U.S. 7th Division's 31st Infantry Regiment began landing at Iwon. Once ashore it was move northwest and protect the 17th Infantry's west flank.
The 21st Infantry Regiment is sent north across the Ch'ongch'on River to retake lost 19th Regiment positions. In heavy fighting the 21st retakes the positions. However, that night the Chinese mount a coordinated attack against all bridgehead defensive positions. At Hill 123 the attack achieved surprise against E & G Companies, 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry with the enemy infiltrating around their positions and following commo wire to their positions. The attack caught many in their sleeping bags. These men died in their sleeping bags. Others were shot execution style in the back of the head. The enemy attack overran all positions on Hill 123. What was left of the battalion withdrew approximately 1000 yards.
A major attack developed against Commonwealth Brigade positions at Pakch'on on the Taeryong River. It was beaten back after the Chinese closed to within hand-to-hand combat range in some places.
Based on information from Soviet defectors who had been working on the project and now in American protective custody, the U.S. Army finds a germ warfare laboratory in Pyongyang where experiments had been done on rats.
At daylight the reequipped 1st Battalion, 19th Infantry counterattacked, closing the gap between the 2nd Battalion and the rest of the Regiment. Meanwhile the rest of the regiment began retaking its original positions against light opposition Later in the day reports came in from all along the defense line of Chinese troops withdrawing north.
Gen. MacArthur reports to the United Nations that "U.N. forces are ... presently engaged in contact with Chinese Communist military units deployed for action against (them)." He says there were 12 incidents involving parts of seven Chinese divisions and airplanes. His report is factual without personal comment, but in a statement released afterwards he claims Chinese intervention is "one of the most offensive acts of international lawlessness of historic record." He says the North Korean army had been decimated with 335,000 losses, 135,000 of them prisoners. (*)
In the Anju-Kunu-ri bridgehead area, Chinese forces have vanished, apparently withdrawing north. This move ended the 1st Phase Chinese Offensive.
An advance party of the first Canadian troops, 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Regiment, lands in Pusan Nov. 7. Also the Thailand Battalion arrives in Korea.
Acting in the hopes that China will withdraw its troops from North Korea if assured it's power dams and targets in the province of Manchuria will not be attacked, the Interim Committee of the U.N. Korean Commission votes to exclude the Yalu River and Manchuria as part of the combat zone.
Lead elements of the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division, which was in reserve in Japan, land at Wonsan in North Korea. To their northeast the U.S. 31st Infantry Regiment, moving up roads on the east side of the Pujon Reservoir (not to be confused with the Chosin Reservoir located some 15 air miles to the west of the Pujon Reservoir) encounter Chinese troops on Paek-San, a 7,700 foot high mountain 12 air miles east of the southern end of the reservoir. After a several hour battle Chinese forces withdraw. Later in the day a patrol from the 31st Infantry meet up with a Marine patrol about half way between the Pujon and Chosin Reservoirs.
The first jet-versus-jet fighter duel takes place over North Korea when F-80 fighters from the 51st Fighter Group and MiG-15 fighters from the 151st Guards Fighter Aviation Division clash. Lt. Russell Brown claims the first kill, but this is later shown to not have happened as all Soviet aircraft returned safely.
On the 7th Division's right flank it's 7th Reconnaissance Company moves to Sillyong, east of P'ungsan, to protect a power installation located there.
Navy LT William Amen, flying an F9F Panther from VF-51, becomes the first US pilot to score a jet victory when he shoots down Soviet Major Grachev from the 139th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment, who is killed when he fails to get out of his aircraft.
The 7th Marines take the Chosin Reservoir and Kot'o-ri Plateau, then run into their first real taste of North Korean winter when temperatures drop to 8 degrees below zero and winds of 35 to 40 miles an hour bring the wind chill down to 30 to 40 plus degrees below zero.
U.S. 3rd Division advance headquarters is established at Wonsan with the mission of relieving all Marine units in the Wonsan area of their anti-guerrilla mission.
The 15th Infantry Regiment, U.S. 3rd Division lands at Wonsan.
The ROK 18th Regiment runs into a strong tank-supported North Korean force at Orang-ch'on, thirty miles northeast of Kilchu. A two day battle ensues and the enemy prevented from breaking through with the help of naval gunfire and close air support.
The 7th Division received orders to advance to the China border. The 17th Infantry received orders to size Kapsan; the 31st Infantry was to advance on the 17th's left (west) flank; and the 32nd Infantry was to seize the southeast shore of the Pujon Reservoir.
A sudden sub-zero cold wave in North Korea catches soldiers and Marines without winter clothing. They wear summer uniforms over winter underwear and huddle by bonfires to keep from freezing. Over the next few days, hundreds of cases of frozen feet are reported.
An Army spokesman in Washington said sufficient winter gear had been shipped to Korea but transportation difficulties must have kept it from being issued to troops.
MacArthur's U.N. headquarters says that the First Marine Division and the Army 7th Infantry Division in extreme northeast Korea have winter clothes. The statement is only partially correct.
U.S. 7th Infantry Division regiments prepare for the advance.
At dawn the battle in the Orang-ch'on area resumes with strong North Korean units, supported by brand new T-34/85 tanks, attacking the ROK 18th Regiment. The attack made limited gains during the day but weakened the 18th.
In accordance to orders, the 2nd Battalion, 17th Infantry attacks across the Ungi River, crossing using a floating footbridge. Upstream a few miles the 3rd Battalion starts to cross via a shallow ford but the North Korean's open the floodgates on a dam causing the water to rise to waist deep forcing a halt to the crossing at this point so the 3rd Battalion crossed using the floating footbridge.
In the Orang-ch'on area, an even stronger attack by North Korean troops and new T-34/85 tanks forces the ROK 18th and 1st Regiments to withdraw southwest down the coast road.
The 1st Battalion, 17th Infantry crosses the Ungi River behind the 2nd Battalion. Both units advance buy make only small gains during the day. To their west the 31st Infantry reached the eastern shore of the Pujon Reservoir.
The ROK Capital Division moves to within 35 miles of Manchuria after marching over snow-covered mountains in northeast North Korea. Then it pushes on up the coast to Myongch'on.
Russian MiG-15s are about 100 miles an hour faster than their F-80 Shooting Stars, according to USAF pilots. An Air Force spokesman in Washington said the reason MiGs have greater speed is that they have less armor protecting the pilots. He also pointed out that the kill ratio is 2-0 in favor of Americans flying F-80s. After the war this is found to not be the case, as the MiGs - both more heavily armed and armored than most US aircraft - are faster due to their modern design based on German wartime research. Also, at this point in time the Soviets had lost two MiGs in combat - but to Navy F9F pilots, not USAF F-80 pilots.
Russians bring a Chinese complaint to the United Nations charging that U.N. aircrews entered Manchuria 84 times from Oct. 27-Nov. 10. Some industries in Manchuria have been moved further from the Yalu River for fear they would be attacked in retaliation for China entering the war, the complaint says.
About 10,000 troops of a special Canadian brigade will train at Fort Lewis, Wash., according to a U.S. Army announcement. They will train for duty in Europe, but could also be sent to Korea.
Four days of fighting and repeated aerial attacks have finally turned the North Korean attack in the Orang-ch'on area so the ROK 18th Regiment can begin retaking lost ground.
The 17th Infantry advance 8 miles toward Kapsan during the day.
The Defense Ministry announces that British losses in Korea are 51 killed, 158 wounded and five missing.
The 7th Regimental Combat Team, U.S. 3rd Infantry Division lands at Wonsan. The division did not engage in any large scale battles during November although it did engage in several small battles with North Korean guerrilla units.
Chinese prisoners of war say most of the communist artillery is American-made captured from Nationalist Chinese forces that were driven off the mainland and being used because the artillery can use captured American ammunition.
Leaving strong units to defend passes in the 7th Division rear areas, the 31st and 32nd regiments move up to the P'ungsan-Kapsan area behind the 17th Infantry. These units were to advance northwest through Samsu to Sin'galp'ajin on the Yalu River. However, a few miles a few miles west of Hyesanjin 17th Infantry patrols encountered stubborn resistance that slowed the advance. This set the tone for all 7th Division units for the next few days so it wasn't until November 28th that 7th Division troops reached Sin'galp'ajin.
In a short, but sharp fight, the 17th Infantry captures Kapsan, then advances 8 more miles during the day and only 23 road miles from Hyesanjin and the China border.
Turkish soldiers begin guarding U.N. supply lines against guerillas between Seoul and P'yongyang. The ROK government estimates at least 40,000 guerillas are spread out over South Korea. ROK soldiers kill 247 guerillas near Namwon close to the south coast.
The 17th Infantry, in a column of battalions, advances 19 miles on foot to a point only a few miles from Hyesanjin.
U.N. headquarters in Tokyo says 150 Chinese soldiers captured in central front fighting report there are no "volunteers" in the communist units. Additionally, the firepower and air attacks of U.N. forces were far greater than they expected. After being given hardly any rations for three days of fighting, the troops began retreating.
The U.S. 17th Infantry, 7th Infantry Division, takes Hyesanjin on the Yalu River in northeast Korea.. As a sidebar: The Yalu River at Hyesanjin is not the mighty river it becomes downstream At Hyesanjin the river is normally shallow and approximately 50 to 75 yards wide.
Chinese Communist Forces in North Korea say "Chinese do not want to fight Americans" when they turned 27 wounded U.S. prisoners over to U.N. forces near Yongbon on the central front. U.S. Army intelligence is trying to figure out China's real intentions behind the release.
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